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Mamalia


Mammals (formally Mammalia) are a class of vertebrate, air-breathing animals whose females are characterized by the possession of mammary glands while both males and females are characterized by sweat glands, hair and/or fur, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the brain.

Mammals are divided into three main infraclass taxa depending how they are born. These taxa are: monotremes, marsupials and placentals. Except for the five species of monotremes (which lay eggs), all mammal species give birth to live young. Most mammals also possess specialized teeth, and the largest group of mammals, the placentals, use a placenta during gestation. The mammalian brain regulates endothermic and circulatory systems, including a four-chambered heart.

There are approximately 5,400 species of mammals, distributed in about 1,200 genera, 153 families, and 29 orders[1] (though this varies by classification scheme). Mammals range in size from the 30–40 millimeter (1- to 1.5-inch) Bumblebee Bat to the 33-meter (108-foot) Blue Whale.

Mammals are divided into two subclasses: the Prototheria, which includes the oviparous monotremes, and the Theria, which includes the placentals and live-bearing marsupials. Most mammals, including the six largest orders, belong to the placental group. The three largest orders, in descending order, are Rodentia (mice, rats, porcupines, beavers, capybaras, and other gnawing mammals), Chiroptera (bats), and Soricomorpha (shrews, moles and solenodons). The next three largest orders include the Carnivora (dogs, cats, weasels, bears, seals, and their relatives), the Cetartiodactyla (including the even-toed hoofed mammals and the whales) and the Primates to which the human species belongs. The relative size of these latter three orders differs according to the classification scheme and definitions used by various authors.

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Tikus

Reptilia


Rupaya orang kebanyakan takut menyentuh ular. Mereka mengira ular dingin dan licin, padahal sebenarnya kering dan sehangat udara di sekelilingnya. Ular sangat kuat dan dapat membelit lenganmu atau meluruskan badannya seperti sebatang tongkat. Ular rumput tidak berbahaya. Tapi hendaklah kau lebih dulu mempelajari perbedaan dari ular berbisa. Jangan coba-coba menangkap ular berbisa.

Ular berbisa sangat berbahaya. Dalam kepalanya terdapat kantung bisa dengan saluran menuju dua taring berongga. Ular harus menggigit untuk meracuni korbannya. Lidahnya yang becabang dan dijulurkan keluar-masuk hanyalah lidah, tidak lebih. Ular menjalar menggunakan ototnya yang sangat kuat, dan otot ini melengkung dari satu sisi ke sisi lainnya. Ular dapat menjalar dengan cepat sekali.

Ada sejenis bengkarung yang bentuknya mirip ular. Bengkarung biasa terdapat di mana-mana, berjemur dalam sinar matahari yang hangat. Tetapi mereka segera lari kalau ada orang sehingga sulit diamati.

Jika kau dapat menangkap bengkarung, peliharalah selama beberapa hari saja, kemudian kembalikan ke tempat kau menangkapnya. Bengkarung yang ketakutan sering berusaha melepaskan diri dari penangkapnya dengan melepaskan ujung ekornya. Ekornya itu ditinggalkan, masih bergerak-gerak, sementara bengkarungnya melarikan diri. Kelak akan tumbuh lagi ekor yang baru.

Semua reptilia bertelur. Telurnya bulat, dengan cangkang lentur yang liat. Kadang-kadang kura-kura yang baru dibeli bertelur dalam lubang di kebun. Telurnya yang berjumlah puluhan akan menetas karena panas matahari.

Ular Rumput


Ular Rumput

The Grass Snake (Natrix natrix), sometimes called the Ringed Snake or Water Snake is a European non-venomous snake. It is often found near water and feeds almost exclusively on amphibians.

Etymology

The name natrix is probably derived from the Latin nare “to swim”.

Description

The Grass Snake is typically dark green or brown in colour with a characteristic yellow collar behind the head, which explains the alternative name ringed snake. The colour may also range from grey to black, with darker colours being more prevalent in colder regions, presumably owing to the thermal benefits of being dark in colour. The underside is whitish with irregular blocks of black, which are useful in recognizing individuals. In Great Britain the Grass Snake is the largest reptile, reaching up to 190 centimetres (6 ft 3 in) total length, though such large specimens are rare. Females are considerably larger than males, typically reaching a size of 90–110 centimetres (2 ft 11 in–3 ft 7 in) when fully grown. Males are approximately 20 centimetres (8 in) shorter and significantly smaller in girth. Weight is about 240 grams (8 oz). Since the colour of its collar is often pale yellow to white in the Balkans region, the name for this snake in Serbian/Croatian language is belouška/bjelouška, which means “white-eared snake” – similarly for some Italian regional names like biancone (“big white”) or biacco.

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Kura-Kura

Warm-blooded


In biology, a warm-blooded (or homeothermic) animal species is one whose members maintain thermal homeostasis; that is, they keep their body temperature at a roughly constant level, regardless of the ambient temperature. This involves the ability to cool down or produce more body heat. Warm-blooded animals mainly control their body temperature by regulating their metabolic rates (e.g. increasing their metabolic rate as the surrounding temperature begins to decrease).

Both the terms “warm-blooded” and “cold-blooded” have fallen out of favour with scientists, because of the vagueness of the terms, and due to an increased understanding in this field. Body temperature types are not discrete categories. Each term may be replaced with one or more variants (see: Definitions of warm-bloodedness). Body temperature maintenance incorporates a wide range of different techniques that result in a body temperature continuum, with the traditional ideals of warm-blooded and cold-blooded being at opposite ends of the spectrum.

Definitions of warm-bloodedness

Warm-bloodedness generally refers to three separate aspects of thermoregulation.

  1. Endothermy is the ability of some creatures to control their body temperatures through internal means such as muscle shivering or fat burning (Greek: endon = “within”, thermē = “heat”). Some writers restrict the meaning of “endothermy” to mechanisms which directly raise the animal’s metabolic rate in order to produce heat. The opposite of endothermy is ectothermy.
  2. Homeothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This temperature is often (though not necessarily) higher than the immediate environment (Greek: homoios = “similar”, thermē = “heat”). The opposite is poikilothermy.
  3. Tachymetabolism is the kind of thermoregulation used by creatures that maintain a high resting metabolism (Greek: tachys/tachus = “fast, swift”, metabolēn = “throw beyond”). Tachymetabolic creatures are, essentially, “on” all the time. Though their resting metabolism is still many times slower than their active metabolism, the difference is often not as large as that seen in bradymetabolic creatures. Tachymetabolic creatures have greater difficulty dealing with a scarcity of food.

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